Levels Of National Cultures

Levels of national cultures

 The first complexity in understanding culture is related to the different levels of depth of cultures. With the “onion assumption”, Hofstede (1980, 2001) explains that values drive practices (behaviors) in a positive way, i.e., when people value something, they act alike. The general consensus is that people behave based on their values and beliefs of how things should be done (e.g., Hofstede 1980; Schwartz 1999; Hofstede 2001; Schein 2004). This manifests in symbols, heroes and rituals.All three are visible to the outside world as practices of a certain culture; “their cultural meanings, however, are invisible” (Hofstede 2001: 10), referring to the core values at the heart of the culture. However, the notion that values and beliefs drive behavior has recently been questioned by House et al. (2004). They showed the opposite (Javidan et al. 2006b: 902): “People may hold views of what should be (i.e., [contextualized] values) based on what they observe in action (i.e., practices)”. One explanation is that people generally desire more of something they do not have. Another explanation could be found in the questionnaire design aimed at measuring “contextualized values”. House et al. conclude that the “onion assumption” of Hofstede is too simplistic and additional research is needed to explain such a complex relationship (Javidan et al.2006b: 901). For this study, cultural practices are considered to be more robust indicators or explanatory factors of actual behavioral differences compared to cultural values. For example, Smith et al. state that “the ‘as is’ ratings comprise the most extensive [cultural] survey to date that has focused on the description of behaviors” (2006: 49). In conclusion, taking the GLOBE study as the primary cultural study of choice, this study focuses on the cultural practices as independent variables explaining differences in the professional behavior of auditors. The cultural values will function as a set of “second-tier” independent variables of reflecting culture where relevant.

 



[1] dissertations.ub.rug.nl/FILES/faculties/…/dissertations.ub.rug.nl/FILES/faculties/… /03c3.pdf03c3.pdf

About Professor C.J.M. Beniers


Prof. C.J.M. Beniers is a well known authority in the field of modern and international communication techniques. He developed the Six-Component-Model. This model enables companies, institutions and politicians to communicate and negotiate with counterparts from all over the world successfully. His career began as international manager at Philips and later he earned his doctorate as professor in communication. He has more than 35 years experience as manager and management trainer. Thus he knows both sides – theory and praxis – very well. As scientist, Prof. Beniers conducts frequently research in the field of intercultural communication. The results of his interesting research can be found in news articles, free pod casts, audio books and his E-books such as “Bridging The Cultural Gap.” Here, modern managers learn how to prepare for business meetings with people from different cultures; they acquire the techniques and tools to handle situations in times of crises successfully, master intercultural barriers, country-specific communication patterns, looking into personal cultural values & systems. Knowing all this, men can prevent cultural misunderstandings and misinterpretations – not only in business but also in private life.

14-01-2015

Email: info@beniers-consultancy.com
Website: http://www.beniers-consultancy.com

 

Vertrauen im interkulturellen Kontext

Menschen mit einem Höchstmaß an Selbstvertrauen gehen elastischer selbstsicher vor. Sie zweifeln nicht an sich selbst und handeln, denken meistens zielorientiert. Das Wahrnehmen, Denken, Urteilen und Handeln dieser Menschen ist selbstverständlich von ihrer eigenen Kultur geprägt.
Menschen aus Fremdkulturen erzeugen eher erwartungswidriges Verhalten, bedürfen der besonderen Aufmerksamkeit, Rücksichtnahme und Beachtung und sind im allgemeinen unberechenbar in ihren Verhaltensweisen. Fremde müssen sich das Vertrauen erst ”verdienen” und ”erarbeiten”, indem sie sich die Werte und Normen der anderen Kultur entsprechend verhalten und diese internalisieren.
Es ist zu erwarten, dass in kollektivistischen Kulturen andere Regeln des Vertrauensaufbaus beachtet und andere Leistungen zur Vertrauensstärkung erbracht werden müssen sowie Vertrauenssicherung und Vertrauensfestigung andere Arten der Investition erfordern als in individualistischen Kulturen.
Menschen aus Kulturen mit hoher Unsicherheitsvermeidung werden von Menschen aus anderen Kulturen ein höheres Maß an Vertrauensaufbau erwarten.
Personen im Auslandseinsatz messen dem Thema des Vertrauensaufbaus große Bedeutung zu. Denn gerade unter fremdkulturellen Handlungsbedingungen wächst die Unsicherheit bezüglich des richtigen, das heißt kulturadäquaten Verhaltens. Außerdem herrscht in derartigen Situationen ein hoher Grad an Orientierungsunklarheit, Intransparenz und Verunsicherung, was man durch die Betonung von Vertrauen (Risikominimierung, Reduzierung von Komplexität, Herstellung von Informationsklarheit und Handlungssicherheit zu bewältigen versucht.
Interkulturelle Begegnung und Kooperation sind besonders im Anfangsstadium mit einem hohen Maß an Intransparenz, Verunsicherung und Orientierungsverlust und subjektivem Kontrollverlust belastet. Zielhandlungen, Handlungsabläufe, selbstverständliche, bislang keiner Beachtung mehr bedurfter Routineabläufe werden gestört, unterbrochen, behindert usw. und erfordern dadurch eine gesonderte Steuerung, Kontrolle, wiederholte Aufmerksamkeit, bewusste Planung und Initiierung. In dieser schwierigen und unüberschaubaren, oft spannungsgeladenen Situation soll zugleich ein erfolgreicher Vertrauensaufbau zum Partner, zu dessen sozialen Umfeld und zum eigenen Lebensumfeld geleistet werden. Im günstigsten Fall wird diese Arbeit mit Behutsamkeit, Vorsicht und einem hohen Maß an eigenkulturell geprägter sozialer Kompetenz angegangen. Der Handelnde bemüht sich, mit SensibilitUat, Empathie und hoher Aufmerksamkeit sein eigenes Verhalten und das seines Partners zu steuern und zu kontrollieren.

About Professor C.J.M. Beniers


Prof. C.J.M. Beniers is a well known authority in the field of modern and international communication techniques. He developed the Six-Component-Model. This model enables companies, institutions and politicians to communicate and negotiate with counterparts from all over the world successfully. His career began as international manager at Philips and later he earned his doctorate as professor in communication. He has more than 35 years experience as manager and management trainer. Thus he knows both sides – theory and praxis – very well. As scientist, Prof. Beniers conducts frequently research in the field of intercultural communication. The results of his interesting research can be found in news articles, free pod casts, audio books and his E-books such as “Bridging The Cultural Gap.” Here, modern managers learn how to prepare for business meetings with people from different cultures; they acquire the techniques and tools to handle situations in times of crises successfully, master intercultural barriers, country-specific communication patterns, looking into personal cultural values & systems. Knowing all this, men can prevent cultural misunderstandings and misinterpretations – not only in business but also in private life.

25-05-2014

Email: info@beniers-consultancy.com
Website: http://www.beniers-consultancy.com

Podcast Offene Kommunikation-1

Dieser Podcast beschäftigt zich mit dem Thema der offenen Kommunikation. Voraussetzung zur offenen Kommunikation ist effektive Dialogführung.  

Prof. C.J.M. Beniers

NL Zoetermeer 20-01-2014

 About Professor C.J.M. Beniers


Prof. C.J.M. Beniers is a well known authority in the field of modern and international communication techniques. He developed the Six-Component-Model. This model enables companies, institutions and politicians to communicate and negotiate with counterparts from all over the world successfully. His career began as international manager at Philips and later he earned his doctorate as professor in communication. He has more than 35 years experience as manager and management trainer. Thus he knows both sides – theory and praxis – very well. As scientist, Prof. Beniers conducts frequently research in the field of intercultural communication. The results of his interesting research can be found in news articles, free pod casts, audio books and his E-books such as “Bridging The Cultural Gap.” Here, modern managers learn how to prepare for business meetings with people from different cultures; they acquire the techniques and tools to handle situations in times of crises successfully, master intercultural barriers, country-specific communication patterns, looking into personal cultural values & systems. Knowing all this, men can prevent cultural misunderstandings and misinterpretations – not only in business but also in private life.

Contact:


Prof. C.J.M. Beniers

Amaliaplaats 
2713 BJ Zoetermeer

The Netherlands

Telefone: +31 (0) 79 – 3 19  03 81

Mobile:  +31 (0) 6 2 061 8494

Email: info@beniers-consultancy.com

http://www.beniers-consultancy.com

 

Podcast Interkulturelle Kommunikation: Empathie-2

In diesem Podcast fahren wir weiter mit dem Thema der Empathie in der interkulturellen Kommunikation. Wir zeigen in diesem Podcast wie der Höflichkeitskodex unserer Kultur die Sensibilität im Umgang mit Empathie im allgemeinen und in der (inter)kulturellen Kommunikation bestimmt.

 

Prof. C.J.M. Beniers

NL Zoetermeer 01-10-2013

© Copyright 2013

About Professor C.J.M. Beniers


Prof. C.J.M. Beniers is a well known authority in the field of modern and international communication techniques. He developed the Six-Component-Model. This model enables companies, institutions and politicians to communicate and negotiate with counterparts from all over the world successfully. His career began as international manager at Philips and later he earned his doctorate as professor in communication. He has more than 35 years experience as manager and management trainer. Thus he knows both sides – theory and praxis – very well. As scientist, Prof. Beniers conducts frequently research in the field of intercultural communication. The results of his interesting research can be found in news articles, free pod casts, audio books and his E-books such as “Bridging The Cultural Gap.” Here, modern managers learn how to prepare for business meetings with people from different cultures; they acquire the techniques and tools to handle situations in times of crises successfully, master intercultural barriers, country-specific communication patterns, looking into personal cultural values & systems. Knowing all this, men can prevent cultural misunderstandings and misinterpretations – not only in business but also in private life.

Contact:


Prof. C.J.M. Beniers

Amaliaplaats 2
2713 BJ Zoetermeer

The Netherlands

Telefone: +31 (0) 79 – 3 19  03 81

Mobile:  +31 (0) 6 2 061 8494

Email: info@beniers-consultancy.com

http://www.beniers-consultancy.com

Podcast Interkulturelle Kommunikation: Vertrauen (Teil 3)

August 22, 2013 by · Leave a Comment
Filed under: interkulturelle Kommunikation, Psychologie 

Die Globalisierung, die sich daraus ergebenden Kontakte und die damit einhergehenden Missverständnisse und Probleme im Bereich gegenseitigen Kulturverständnisses hat deutlich gemacht, dass man ohne Vertrauen zu sich selbst und zu anderen nicht erfolgreich mit anderen Personen und vor allem nicht mit anderen Kulturträgern kommunizieren kann. In diesem Podcast gehen wir tiefer darauf ein.

 

Prof. C.J.M. Beniers

NL Zoetermeer 22-08-2013

© Copyright 2013

About Professor C.J.M. Beniers


Prof. C.J.M. Beniers is a well known authority in the field of modern and international communication techniques. He developed the Six-Component-Model. This model enables companies, institutions and politicians to communicate and negotiate with counterparts from all over the world successfully. His career began as international manager at Philips and later he earned his doctorate as professor in communication. He has more than 35 years experience as manager and management trainer. Thus he knows both sides – theory and praxis – very well. As scientist, Prof. Beniers conducts frequently research in the field of intercultural communication. The results of his interesting research can be found in news articles, free pod casts, audio books and his E-books such as “Bridging The Cultural Gap.” Here, modern managers learn how to prepare for business meetings with people from different cultures; they acquire the techniques and tools to handle situations in times of crises successfully, master intercultural barriers, country-specific communication patterns, looking into personal cultural values & systems. Knowing all this, men can prevent cultural misunderstandings and misinterpretations – not only in business but also in private life.

Contact:


Prof. C.J.M. Beniers

Amaliaplaats 2
2713 BJ Zoetermeer

The Netherlands

Telefone: +31 (0) 79 – 3 19  03 81

Mobile:  +31 (0) 6 2 061 8494

Email: info@beniers-consultancy.com

http://www.beniers-consultancy.com

Podcast Interkulturelle Kommunikation: Vertrauen (Teil 2)

In diesem Podcast behandeln wir drei Möglichkeiten zur Stärkung unseres Selbstvertrauens: Kopf (Denken), Herz (Fühlen) und Hand (Handeln).

 

Prof. C.J.M. Beniers

NL Zoetermeer 20-08-2013

© Copyright 2013

About Professor C.J.M. Beniers


Prof. C.J.M. Beniers is a well known authority in the field of modern and international communication techniques. He developed the Six-Component-Model. This model enables companies, institutions and politicians to communicate and negotiate with counterparts from all over the world successfully. His career began as international manager at Philips and later he earned his doctorate as professor in communication. He has more than 35 years experience as manager and management trainer. Thus he knows both sides – theory and praxis – very well. As scientist, Prof. Beniers conducts frequently research in the field of intercultural communication. The results of his interesting research can be found in news articles, free pod casts, audio books and his E-books such as “Bridging The Cultural Gap.” Here, modern managers learn how to prepare for business meetings with people from different cultures; they acquire the techniques and tools to handle situations in times of crises successfully, master intercultural barriers, country-specific communication patterns, looking into personal cultural values & systems. Knowing all this, men can prevent cultural misunderstandings and misinterpretations – not only in business but also in private life.

Contact:


Prof. C.J.M. Beniers

Amaliaplaats 2
2713 BJ Zoetermeer

The Netherlands

Telefone: +31 (0) 79 – 3 19  03 81

Mobile:  +31 (0) 6 2 061 8494

Email: info@beniers-consultancy.com

http://www.beniers-consultancy.com

Podcast Interkulturelle Kommunikation: Vertrauen (Teil 1)

Interkulturelle Kommunikation ist nicht so einfach, denn in diesem Bereich spielt Vertrauen, und vor allem Selbstvertrauen, eine wesentliche Rolle. Dieser Podcast behandelt einige Grundsätze des Selbstvertrauens im interkulturellen Bereich.

 

Prof. C.J.M. Beniers

NL Zoetermeer 20-08-2013

© Copyright 2013

About Professor C.J.M. Beniers


Prof. C.J.M. Beniers is a well known authority in the field of modern and international communication techniques. He developed the Six-Component-Model. This model enables companies, institutions and politicians to communicate and negotiate with counterparts from all over the world successfully. His career began as international manager at Philips and later he earned his doctorate as professor in communication. He has more than 35 years experience as manager and management trainer. Thus he knows both sides – theory and praxis – very well. As scientist, Prof. Beniers conducts frequently research in the field of intercultural communication. The results of his interesting research can be found in news articles, free pod casts, audio books and his E-books such as “Bridging The Cultural Gap.” Here, modern managers learn how to prepare for business meetings with people from different cultures; they acquire the techniques and tools to handle situations in times of crises successfully, master intercultural barriers, country-specific communication patterns, looking into personal cultural values & systems. Knowing all this, men can prevent cultural misunderstandings and misinterpretations – not only in business but also in private life.

Contact:


Prof. C.J.M. Beniers

Amaliaplaats 2
2713 BJ Zoetermeer

The Netherlands

Telefone: +31 (0) 79 – 3 19  03 81

Mobile:  +31 (0) 6 2 061 8494

Email: info@beniers-consultancy.com

http://www.beniers-consultancy.com

Podcast Interkulturelle Kompetenz: Begriffsinhalte

In diesem Podcast gehen wir tiefer auf die Komponenten interkultureller Kompetenz ein, wie: Begegnung, Kooperation, Erfahrung, Sachkompetenz, Selbstkompetenz und Sozialkompetenz.

 

Prof. C.J.M. Beniers

NL Zoetermeer 01-07-2013

© Copyright 2013

About Professor C.J.M. Beniers


Prof. C.J.M. Beniers is a well known authority in the field of modern and international communication techniques. He developed the Six-Component-Model. This model enables companies, institutions and politicians to communicate and negotiate with counterparts from all over the world successfully. His career began as international manager at Philips and later he earned his doctorate as professor in communication. He has more than 35 years experience as manager and management trainer. Thus he knows both sides – theory and praxis – very well. As scientist, Prof. Beniers conducts frequently research in the field of intercultural communication. The results of his interesting research can be found in news articles, free pod casts, audio books and his E-books such as “Bridging The Cultural Gap.” Here, modern managers learn how to prepare for business meetings with people from different cultures; they acquire the techniques and tools to handle situations in times of crises successfully, master intercultural barriers, country-specific communication patterns, looking into personal cultural values & systems. Knowing all this, men can prevent cultural misunderstandings and misinterpretations – not only in business but also in private life.

Contact:


Prof. C.J.M. Beniers

Amaliaplaats 2
2713 BJ Zoetermeer

The Netherlands

Telefone: +31 (0) 79 – 3 19  03 81

Mobile:  +31 (0) 6 2 061 8494

Email: info@beniers-consultancy.com

http://www.beniers-consultancy.com

Podcast Interkulturelle Kompetenz: Wesensmerkmale

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In diesem Podcast beschäftigen wir uns mit dem Phänomen des interkulturellen Verständnisses. Bekanntlich ist Kommunikation zwischen Fremdkulturträgern in manchen Fällen ungemein schwierig und führt oft zu Missverständnissen. Dieser Podcast skizziert ein wichtiges Hilfsmittel, mit dem man möglichst viele interkulturell bedingte Missverständnisse vermeiden kann.

 

Prof. C.J.M. Beniers

NL Zoetermeer 01-07-2013

© Copyright 2013

About Professor C.J.M. Beniers


Prof. C.J.M. Beniers is a well known authority in the field of modern and international communication techniques. He developed the Six-Component-Model. This model enables companies, institutions and politicians to communicate and negotiate with counterparts from all over the world successfully. His career began as international manager at Philips and later he earned his doctorate as professor in communication. He has more than 35 years experience as manager and management trainer. Thus he knows both sides – theory and praxis – very well. As scientist, Prof. Beniers conducts frequently research in the field of intercultural communication. The results of his interesting research can be found in news articles, free pod casts, audio books and his E-books such as “Bridging The Cultural Gap.” Here, modern managers learn how to prepare for business meetings with people from different cultures; they acquire the techniques and tools to handle situations in times of crises successfully, master intercultural barriers, country-specific communication patterns, looking into personal cultural values & systems. Knowing all this, men can prevent cultural misunderstandings and misinterpretations – not only in business but also in private life.

Contact:


Prof. C.J.M. Beniers

Amaliaplaats 2
2713 BJ Zoetermeer

The Netherlands

Telefone: +31 (0) 79 – 3 19  03 81

Mobile:  +31 (0) 6 2 061 8494

Email: info@beniers-consultancy.com

http://www.beniers-consultancy.com

Grundsatzprinzipien interkultureller Kompetenz-5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vier Quellen der Selbstwirksamkeit (1)

 a.  Eigene Erfahrungen

Eigene Erfahrungen haben den wichtigsten Einfluss auf die Ausbildung der Selbstwirksamkeit. Das Erlebnis, durch eigene Anstrengungen ein Ziel zu erreichen, bewirkt, dass man sich auch in Zukunft für fähig halten wird, schwierige Aufgaben zu bewältigen. Wichtig ist dabei, dass man sich für die Zielerreichung anstrengen muss. Wer sich für seine Erfolge nicht anstrengen muss, lernt auch nicht, dass er sie durch eigenes Handeln beeinflussen kann. Besonders stark wirken sich sogenannte „mastery experience’’’ aus. Dies sind Situationen, in denen eine Person zunächst nicht weiss, wie sie eine Aufgabe zu lösen hat, aber durch eigene Anstrengungen nach und nach eine erfolgreiche Lösungsstrategie ausbildet.

b.  Modelllernen

Beim Beobachten von Personen, die durch eigene Anstrengung eine schwierige Aufgabe bewältigen, kann ebenfalls Selbstwirksamkeit entstehen. Hierbei spielt die wahrgenommene Ähnlichkeit zwischen BeobachterIn und Zielperson eine grosse Rolle. Nur wenn man der Zielperson ähnliche Kompetenzen zuschreibt wie sich selbst, löst deren Erfolg auch beim Beobachter / bei der Beobachterin das Gefühl aus, das Gleiche erreichen zu können.

c.  Soziale Überzeugung

Auch durch Zuspruch von anderen gewinnt man Vertrauen in die eigenen Fähigkeiten. Damit Selbstwirksamkeit entstehen kann, müssen die von aussen herangetragenen Überzeugungen jedoch auch (irgendwann) mit der Realität übereinstimmen. Das heißt: Man muss auch irgendwann tatsächlich Erfolg haben.

 dPsychologische Zustände

Da die Beurteilung von Situationen auch immer von körperlichen Empfindungen abhängt, ist eine weitere Einflussquelle die Beurteilung von physiologischen Zuständen in bestimmten Situationen. Durch positive Beurteilung von physiologischen Begleiterscheinungen (wie z.B. Herzklopfen) wird Selbstwirksamkeit ausgelöst.

[1] Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. 

 

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